Royal Standard Poodles DNA with the company Embark is helping breeders to "KNOW" what colors a pairing will bring you. The Embark DNA is helping us understand canine body size as well, yet there are a lot more variables that play into their end size that Embark hasn't been able to pull out in genes at this time. YET, I can do my best to help you understand what Embark has found to help me produce larger Royal Standard Poodles DNA.
This is from Embark with their permission to share:
Body size depends on a whole host of genes, in fact, there are more than we can even presently test for! Because there are so many different size genes, there is not a straightforward way to predict how combinations of them will impact offspring size like you would be able to predict certain coat color combinations from our results. Because of the number of these genes, and the level of interaction between them, individual genotype results on a dog's report (for example, the IGF1 gene) do not relate to a specific value in terms of height or weight range.
But, in general, if one parent is homozygous (has two copies of the same allele) for the larger variant of a gene and one parent is homozygous for the smaller variant, then the offspring will all be heterozygous (have one copy of two different alleles). This means that gene will have an intermediate impact on size. Whereas if both parents are, say, heterozygous, then half the offspring will be heterozygous but the other half will be homozygous either for the larger or smaller gene, so you'd probably see more variation in body size in the offspring due to that gene (but again the overall size will also depend on the other size genes that each puppy happens to inherit). You can then see how this would translate into comparing different combinations of inherited variants. Remember, again, in that example we're only discussing possibilities for one gene. We need to keep the whole picture in mind.
Customer Support Specialist
I no longer will call them runts of a litter, they may be smaller, yet better understanding of their DNA gives me knowledge of their size. The combinations of genes are bringing the sizes about.